Le Rouge et le Noir, usually translated as The Red and the Black or Scarlet and Black, is the most celebrated work of Marie-Henri Beyle, better known under the pseudonym of Stendhal.
While in Marseille on travels in 1829, Stendhal wrote in the margins of his Promenades dans Rome that the “idea of Julien” came to him in the night of October 25/26. He returned to Paris at the end of November with a manuscript that he judged to be too short and spent most of 1830 expanding and editing. The work was given its present title in May 1830 and was published by Levavasseur in the following November. The manuscript has since been destroyed.
Citation: Haldane, Joseph John. "Le Rouge et le noir: Chronique du XIXe siècle". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 13 May 2008 [https://staging.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=11167, accessed 02 October 2023.]